"Napoleon Divorces Josephine"



After years of unsuccessful breeding, Napoleon and Josephine divorced, because Napoleon decided to find himself a younger wife who could produce a heir. (It was first thought that Napoleon was sterile, because Josephine had two children from a previous marriage.) Napoleon decided to find a younger wife who would more probable to produce an heir. Napoleon eventually marries his second wife, Marie Louise, daughter of the Austrian emporer and neice of Marie Antionette, and in 1810 an heir is born. Napoleon entitles him the King of Rome, but common people refer to him as the "Eaglet."

"Napoleon Gives Baby Brother Joseph the Spanish Throne"

After Napoleon's brother, Joseph, spent four years on the Naples throne, Napoleon selected him as the Spanish King. This political move was just another link in Napoleon's chain of the Bonaparte influenced control in Europe. Louis Bonaparte was the king of Holland for six years, Jerome Bonaparte was the king of Westphailia, and sister Caroline became the queen of Naples after Joseph began ruling in Spain. Joachim Murat, Napoleon's brother-in-law and Caroline's husband, became the king of Naples when Napoleon no longer had a sibling available for a monarch position because he had quarrelled with his brother Lucien.

"War of Liberation in Austria"

After years of control and menace by Napolean's France towards Austria, the Habsburg government declared a war of liberation in April of 1809. Napolean lead the French forces and rapidly advanced toward Vienna. Without the help of German princes, the Austrians fell quickly after a only few short months, and surrendering in October of that same year. Amazingly, the Austrian monarchy survived the exeperience without internal unrest or disloyalty to the crown they did, however, lose a consideralbe amount of land to France as a result of their defeat a portion of Austrian Poland was used to enlarge the Grand Duchy of Warsaw and the Illyrian Provinces were created from sections of Dalmatia, Slovenia, and Croatia in southern Austria.

"Wellesley in Command in Portugal"

British General Arthur Wellesley was given command of British espeditionary forces in Portugal to fight Napoleon. In the Penninsular War (1808-1814), Wellesley's troops won several battles, including Talavera de la Reina (1809), Salamanca (1812), Vitoria (1813), and Toulouse (1814), and successfully forced Napoleon and his troops out of Spain and Portugal. During this war, Wellesley first used his famous "scorched-earth policy," which involved burning the countryside while his troops advanced, this method was later used by the Russians in defense against Napoleon. The British success in Spain made Wellesley a rich and honored man, and in 1814 he was created the first Duke of Wellington. He participated in the Congress of Vienna, which decided the fate of Napoleon and redrew the map of Europe after Napoleon's defeat, and later defeated Napoleon at his last attempt at Europeon domination at the famous Battle of Waterloo.

"Jean Baptiste de Lamarck Published Early Writings on Evolution"

The French naturalist, Jean Baptiste de Lamarck, published Philosophie Zoologique in 1809, in which he proposed that animals acquire different characteristics in response to their environment. An example of this is his theory on the evolution of giraffes long neck in order to reach its food, its neck grew longer. Although his theory, commonly referred to a Lamarckism, was later discredited through Mendel's experiments which showed that no change in the body can affect the genes, Lamarck is considered an important forerunner of evolutionary theory and his solid contributions in biological classifacation are recoginzed today.

(also see: the monkey page)

"New Journal, The Quarterly Review, is Founded"

A new American literary journal, The Quarterly Review, was founded in 1809. The publication was created to compete directly with the British journal, the Edinburgh Review. Published authors included Jane Austen, Crabbes, Washington Irving, and Lord Byron.

"Non-Intercourse Act Repeals Embargo Act"

The American Embargo Act was repealed by the Non-Intercourse Act in 1809, which reactivated US trace with all countries except France and Great Britain. This act and other factors contributed to the War of 1812 between England and the United States.

"Revolts in Ecuador"

General Antonio Jos* de Sude, Chief Leutenant of Simon Bolivar, led revolts in Ecuador against Spanish rule. The relvolts, put down in the year 1809, led to their Wars of Independence.

"Duke of York and Albany Resigns"

Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany and second son of George III of Britain, resigned in the wake of bribary accusations. He was accused of taking bribes from his mistress, Mary Anne Clarke, to secure army promotions.

"Finland Declared a Grand Duchy of Russia"

Two years after Czar Alexander I of Russia attacked and occupied Finland, the leader proclaimed the country a Grand Duchy of Russia in March of 1809. He granted his new subjects previous rights and privilages. The Peace of Hamina in September formally ceded all of Finland and the *land Islands to Russia, however the Kardi-an areas ceded to Russia before 1809 were returned to Finland.

"Norwegian King Overthrown"

A Norwegian army faction led by Georg Adlersparre overthrew Gustavus IX, King of Norway, in 1809. The group later wrote a constitution and created a republican government.

Art in 1809

Fashion in 1809

Innovative Technology

Important Events of the Time

Paged edited by Kristin Husmoe, Casey Fulton


Palmer, R.R, and Joel Colton. A History of the Modern World, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, INC, 1984. 397-404. Infopedia, 1995.

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