A Glossary of Garden Terms That Apply to Arcadia.
Allée: trees planted very close along an avenue and trimmed
off the walk way Arbor: a frame or lattice work covered with
vines for shade.
Bower: a lattice work, or wicker work covered with flowering
vines, a poetic term for a lady's bed.
Brown, Lancelot "Capability": (1716-1783) began career in
1741 at Stowe as a student of Kent, great man of the
Espalier: a dwarf fruit tree, usually apple or pear, trained
and pruned onto a frame in a flat symmetrical design to
create a living fence or to grow fruit against a wall in a
small space like a town garden or castle courtyard.
Grotto: a faux cave with a water feature and statuary (often
Neptune). Also a deliberate attempt to introduce a
melancholy mood (associated with creativity), and a cool
retreat on a hot day.
Ha-ha: sunken fence used to open up views but keep livestock
out of house gardens, a Kent trademark.
Kent, William: (1685-1748) developer of Landscape gardening.
Key principals: idealized nature, nature abhors a straight
line, use of vistas through hahas and view walks. His
Kentian style was marked by the use of Greek temples(1725-
1755) as focal points.
Knight, Richard Payne: (1750-1824) proponent of the
Picturesque movement wrote "The Landscape" 1794.
Landscape Garden style: (1755-1785) simple idealized natural area
containing the elements of grass, trees , and water as a
view from certain high points to which the person is lead by
walks and buildings meant to engender a sense of serenity.
Movement was accelerated by the value of grazing animals and
small groves of trees.
Parterre: intricate shapes created by planting and
pruning boxwood often set off with colored gravels.
Patte d'oie: goose's foot an odd number of paths coming
together at a center point at angles less than 90 degrees.
Picturesque Garden style: (1785-1840)a style of landscaping
in which the scene is dramatic through use of sudden
elevation and a sense of isolation and the dominance of
nature meant to move the emotions strongly, influenced by
the Lakeland poets.
Pleached: to bend and to interweave branches of trees to
form a living fence or wall plashed: to cut partly and
intertwine the branches of as in a hedge.
Repton, Humphry: Landscape designer who began career in 1788
published "Sources of Pleasure in Landscape Gardening" which
analyzed and summarized "Capability" Brown's work.
Topiary: trees or shrubs trained and clipped into geometric
or animal shapes often cut yew trees as at Levens garden.
Return to the main glossary page.
Information provided by: Nick Morgan and "The" Leah Carlson, May 2005